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Adhesion & Glass Adhesion
This is when a set candle pulls away from the sides of the container – this is very common when using containers and can be seen clearly when using clear glass containers. Also referred to as “Wet Spots”
You can see the candle to the left has "Wet" looking areas, this is where the wax has contracted and pulled away from the sides of the container.
A term to describe the main component of the product, i.e. Candle Wax for candles or melts, diffuser oil for diffusers and soap base for... soap!
Different bases are used in different combination by different makers, everyone will establish their own combination favourites to work with.
Bloom or Frosting
Predominantly when using soy or natural wax you can get some white crystals form on the surface of the candle, can also be referred to as ‘bloom’ – you can reduce bloom by pouring your candle between 40 – 45 degrees centigrade.
Cold Throw or Cold Fragrance Throw
Describes how strong a fragrance is before the candle has been lit for the first time – this is usually evaluated within 48 hours of the candle been fully cured.
How much fragrance has been added to the ‘Base’ product by percentage. i.e. 10 grams of fragrance added to 100 grams of wax is a 10% fragrance load.
This is the term used to describe the strength of fragrance been produced by a burning candle – usually, it will be judged once a candle has been burning for two hours.
When melting the wax, this is the point at which a solid wax becomes a liquid.
This differs for different waxes and should be shown on the SDS or Info sheet for the wax you're using.
As a candle burns, a liquid layer of wax will form - this is called the melt pool.
A full melt pool should be reached within the first two hours of burning but should not form too fast.
This is the point that it’s best to add fragrance and dyes to the melted wax, the favoured temperature is around 80 centigrade but can vary for different waxes - testing will establish the best mix temperature.
Often when using an incorrectly sized wick you will get a carbon build-up at the top of the burning wick that looks like a mushroom.
The temperature to pour your molten and mixed Wax/Dye/Fragrance mix into the mould or container.
Caused by air pockets as the wax cools, you may find that once your wax has cooled in its container you are left with holes or dips in your wax, these can be resolved by doing a second pour to fill these holes and add a thin layer to your candle that will create a smooth finish.
Often caused when using a wick that’s too small for your candle, the wick will burn down the centre of a candle without creating a full melt pool.
Wick Down & Wick Up
Wick Down is the term used when using a wick that’s one size down within the same wick series, i.e. going from an ECO 16 to an ECO 14.
Wick Up is the term used when using a wick that’s one size larger within the same wick series, i.e. going from an ECO 14 to an ECO 16.
So there you go, a glossary of frequently used candle making terms, if you know of any extras we should add (we will add more as they come us) then please comment below - also, if you have some great images of the issues and terms described above then please send them over, we'd love to feature your images!